Education is not just a network of schools and the learning process that takes place in them.
Literally all social institutions (including schools) have an educational purpose, and a reasonable person tries to learn throughout their life.



Education is a significant attribute and prerequisite for the development of a person, various communities, organizations, and institutions, as well as society as a whole. In Estonian culture, education has always been considered a value that is inappropriate to argue about. Like mother and mother tongue (in Estonian “ema” and “emakeel”), nature and the Creator, honor and dignity.

From time to time, we have the habit of reminding each other that already by the mid-17th century, Estonia was completely covered by a network of schools and had achieved almost universal literacy.

We are in the 21st century, but we still have to deal with the notion that the educational system is first and foremost schools, and that education itself is what they “give” and do in them.

In order to consider the educational system, it is necessary to find enough points of view. It is important to recognize that all institutions have an educational purpose; first and foremost among them being the home and family. In addition to schools, theaters, museums, and libraries, the church, army, sports, tourism organizations, and any businesses, institutions, etc. play a role. The media — radio, television, newspapers, magazines, literature, art, and, of course, social media — are important.

School as an institution has a system-forming role in society and culture. The more important schools become in the education system, the less freedom of choice families have. As discussed in previous chapters, the importance of schools in the educational system is very significant, but the role of schools (all schools) in the formation of educated people and an educated society hardly exceeds 10%.


Education is:

  • a function of culture;
  • one of the attributes or characteristics of a subject, formed in the unity of learning, upbringing, and experience;
  • a prerequisite for the formation of a citizen and their conscientious and responsible activity;
  • a factor in the modern functioning, change, and development of society;
  • a prerequisite for achieving, preserving, protecting, and exercising freedom;
  • an aim, goal, and means;
  • a constitutional right;
  • a prerequisite for appointment to office (obtaining parliamentarian powers) and eligibility for/retention in an occupation (certification);
  • the continuous process of forming a person’s preparedness for the next stages of life;
  • a miracle (!);
  • etc.


Most of the knowledge is accumulated in people randomly, through intuition and experience, feelings and reflections, research and creativity, work and play, and simple communication. Personal example plays a huge role.



Education itself is not of any value, but the unity of educatedness, informedness, and experience is. Also, knowledge as such is not of value, but the unity of knowledge, skills, and understanding is. Interest is not value; value lies in the unity of interest, will, and faith (see also 2.8.).

Education cannot be “given” to anyone anywhere in any way. Education cannot be taken, bought, sold, or exchanged. It is impossible to work in education (teachers have an occupation in schools, or other educational facilities). You can’t come to education and you can’t leave it.


School plays an essential role in the education system, but the educational function is carried out by all public institutions

FIGURE 9.0.1. School plays an essential role in the education system, but the educational function is carried out by all public institutions



Functions of the education system

FIGURE 9.0.2. Functions of the education system



Expectations of the school as an institution

FIGURE 9.0.3. Expectations of the school as an institution


A person can become educated only in the cultural space — as a function of their own culture, national culture, and universal culture (through objective co-dependence, in the interaction of many factors) (see Figure 5.3.1.).

Education is the unity of learning, upbringing, and experience. The primary thing here is upbringing — supporting growing up by creating and preserving an environment suitable for the development of the subject.

Education is a function of culture (through objective co-dependence of growing up within cultural connections). Culture has many meanings, but in this book we will limit ourselves to the following interpretation: culture is a set of values, norms, virtues, myths, and taboos that order people’s attitudes and relationships, ways of thinking, and behavior (see also 5).


A person can learn anything and anywhere, but they can become educated only in the cultural space.


Education as a process is a lifelong chain of forming readiness and preparedness. In every culture, at different times, people had their own ideas of what boys and girls and men and women should be prepared for at a certain age. Accordingly, different cultures have their own ideas about the prerequisites for forming sufficient preparedness, as well as the path that can be considered appropriate.

People who feel marginalized, that is, who have already lost their old, but not yet gained new, cultural connections, may learn, know, and be able to do quite a lot, but it is very, very difficult for them to become educated because of their lack of identity (see 2.3.).



Education cannot be started or finished. It is possible to start and finish learning, making, researching, studying, or building no matter what. Everyone knows that in order to succeed in life, you need to know a lot as well as know how and understand. This is true, but it is worth remembering that the value lies in the unity of all three components. If we talk about them one by one, then we risk that the meaning evaporates, as the meaning lies in the unity of knowledge, skills, and understanding.


  • Experience can be gained only through direct practice, which must be accompanied by an emotional impact.
  • This is why it is impossible to exchange experiences. You can only talk about your own or someone else’s experiences, as well as generalize, particularize, check, etc.


You can study texts. Skills are formed through practice and experience, while understanding comes through thinking. A person can only gain experience through direct practice accompanied by an emotional impact. In the event of failure, the subconscious mind retains a sense of annoyance and the understanding that it is not worth doing that again. If successful, a feeling of joy and desire to do the same thing in the future is set.

Meanings are formed in context (in metasystems). Understanding requires knowledge of both the whole and the details, subsystems, parts and elements, connections and dependencies, opportunities and dangers. It is worth repeating: the value is not in itself knowledge, skills, or understanding, but their unity! The measure of education is the ability to anticipate and recognize.



Those who wish to participate in learning (no matter what role) should try to grasp for themselves who is considered an educated person and how it is formed, how to remain educated (even though everything around you is changing faster and faster), and what, in turn, depends on education and an educated person (see also 2.8. and Figure 0.3.2.).

It is necessary to take a much closer look at the prerequisites for the formation of a specialist in their field (see 1.7.), to reveal the structure and composition of these prerequisites, and to compare them with the current state of affairs.


Ability to distinguish and associate (unite)

FIGURE 9.1.1. Ability to distinguish and associate (unite)


That way you can find out “where the dog is buried” (what it is all about). If you then have enough courage and desire to formulate this as a problem (see Figure 0.3.3.), to write it down as a model, and to introduce it to your friends at least, then it will be possible to discover the causes (the system of causal and functional connections) for the emergence of the contradiction that is the problem (and possibly also causes for its existence, deepening, and expansion). Then it will be relatively easy to create a program for yourself to fill in the gaps, as well as to preserve and strengthen everything previously achieved.

There is a question of great importance to the citizen: how the preparedness to function actively and responsibly in social and cultural life is formed, how one can become a subject of self-management and social management, a person capable of independently orienting, thinking, analyzing and generalizing, deciding, functioning both alone and collectively, and not being and not remaining an object of manipulation that is pushed and pulled around (see also Figure 1.6.1.).

Under the circumstances of a rapidly changing world, changing the content and organization of the entire educational system is becoming urgent. At the same time, the moral right to change something arises if and only if there is a clear idea of what must be preserved, strengthened, and protected: that is, what categorically should not be changed.


Prerequisites and learning outcomes

FIGURE 9.1.2. Prerequisites and learning outcomes


In the process of learning, the ability to navigate and act in the future should be formed; therefore, when organizing the learning process and finding suitable content for it, there should be quite a lot of forecasts and scenarios. The learning process is meaningful if it is prospective (future-oriented).


  • Studying is always a retrospective activity (stemming from the past).
  • The learning process is made meaningful by being
  • future-oriented: that is, it is prospective.


You can study previously created texts (a set of meaningful symbols and signs). In this sense, studying is a retrospective activity (stemming from the past). There is no doubt that some part of knowledge is fundamental (laws of nature, laws of society, and laws of thinking, as well as the patterns of their manifestation). Such texts are called foundational texts, and the corresponding knowledge is called foundational knowledge. Foundational knowledge must be mastered: that is, studied, comprehended, connected with previously mastered knowledge, consolidated, etc (see 2.8.).


Prerequisites and learning outcomes

FIGURE 9.1.3. Prerequisites and learning outcomes


The most important thing in organizing the learning process is to make sure that all the factors that are significant to it are present, and that none of them are so weak as to render the other factors meaningless (see Figure 9.1.4.).


Learning factors

FIGURE 9.1.4. Learning factors


Necessity. Without necessity, the learning process will become superficial, fragmented, and rather meaningless. If an adult does not have the necessity to be a knowledgeable professional, then nothing will make them exert themself and rise above themself.

If the principle of competency was in force, only those candidates who had proven their preparedness would be eligible for certain occupations. This would mean that a candidate possesses:

  • clear, sustainable, systematic knowledge;
  • the skill to apply this knowledge;
  • the ability to explain their preferences, refusals, and other choices;
  • the skill to ensure the systematicity and complexity of further activity in the field in which they are a professional.

In addition to professionalism, personal and moral congruence and a predisposition to the profession are also necessary. Everyone in life should have reached a level where they are able to navigate independently and participate in making decisions about why, how, and what to do in order to obtain usable and appropriate results with as few consequences as possible.

Content. The content of the learning process must be systematic, comprehensive, and modern.


  • If a person does not have a necessity to be a knowledgeable professional, then nothing will make them exert and master themself.
  • If the principle of competency was in force, then candidates for any occupation would have to prove their preparedness, knowledge, skill to apply the knowledge, and ability to explain and justify, and ensure systematicy and complexity.


Organization. When organizing the learning process, the whole system of learning factors should be taken into account: time and place, form of learning, learning materials, established relationships, learning methods and programs, social and cultural connections, family and community ties. When organizing the learning process, the subjective relationships between people are of central importance — only subjects can communicate. If one or both of the cooperating parties view each other as an object, then we are dealing with treatment (see Figure 6.0.1.). The object of the learning process is not the person, but their development.

Method. In learning, a method is a set of approaches (which include various techniques and devices) to achieve the main goal of the learning-upbringing activity: personal development. When choosing a method, the individual characteristics of learners should be taken into account; for example, “early birds” (those who wake up early and go to bed early) or “night owls” (those who wake up late and are active at night), left- or right-handed, “physicists” or “lyricists”, people with inductive or deductive thinking, etc.



It should be understood that it is impossible to teach everything or study everything that can be useful in life. It is possible to achieve the ability to independently navigate, think, and draw conclusions. It is possible to learn to listen, obey, and be independent. It is possible to learn to look, measure, assess, count, and describe, to distinguish and relate. It is possible to achieve an understanding of systems, meanings, dangers, and opportunities (see 2.11.).


In the process of studying, you cannot get smarter; in the process of studying, you can acquire knowledge through which you can gain even more knowledge.


People live in the present but prepare for the future. Each subsequent moment may be familiar or unfamiliar. Although much of what seems new is the forgotten old, it is necessary to distinguish and unite, decide and actualize, doubt until you are convinced of the authenticity, etc.

In the process of studying, you cannot get smarter; in the process of studying, you can acquire knowledge through which you can gain even more knowledge. A separate issue is the value and quality of this knowledge (see Figure 9.1.5.).


Let's think about how knowledge becomes the basis of activity

FIGURE 9.1.5. Let’s think about how knowledge becomes the basis of activity


What matters in knowledge is its authenticity, integrity, meaningfulness and connectedness, depth and range, fundamentality, applicability, etc. It is also important to have concentric construction (gathered around a single center and replenished through new layers) and the ordering of knowledge so that it can be easily and quickly found in one’s memory when necessary. The sustainability of knowledge is also important — it is formed by overcoming doubts, which in turn allows us to doubt everything that we have not yet had the opportunity to verify.

Much of the knowledge accompanies a person only as background, and it may seem that it will never be useful. We do not realize that every bit of knowledge can be material for any kind of thought construction, nor do we know through what knowledge we have been fortunate enough to understand something, to continue thinking and behaving in an expedient way. Increasing the amount (volume) of knowledge is easier than ordering it.

Classifications and other structures serve as the basis of ordering, which we can try to explain with the example of such well-known objects as a barrel, a frame, a shelf, a honeycomb, a chain, etc. The law of the barrel or anchor chain is repeated several times in this book (see 1.0.).

We should begin by creating a model that takes into account the characteristics of knowledge: fundamentality and applicability, scope and orderliness, and depth and breadth, according to which one should know everything about something, and one should know at least something about everything, etc.


Knowledge as a problem

FIGURE 9.1.6. Knowledge as a problem


The quality of knowledge characterizes correspondence with:

  • needs;
  • cultural stereotypes;
  • state and international standards as perceptions of the norm;
  • ideals;
  • the probable needs of the future.



Any moment in life can be instructive, but it can also be misleading, frightening or surprising, delightful or dangerous. In order to live with dignity and actively participate in social and cultural life, every citizen (all people!) today must remain open to new knowledge. In Estonia, the Constitution gives every citizen and foreigner the right to be educated. And no one has the right to interpret that as an obligation to go to some (much less any particular) school.

The difference between schools can be very great. The same can be said of all kinds of courses, seminars, symposiums, conferences, congresses, etc.


Learning strategies

FIGURE 9.1.7. Learning strategies


Broadly speaking, supplemental learning can be divided into:

  • supplemental learning in various programs organized by universities;
  • regular “learning days” and “learning weeks” in various agencies, departments, parties, and local governments (so-called conferences, which actually include a series of lectures, commonly referred to as reports);
  • foreign courses conducted, as a rule, at the initiative of large corporations, unions, associations, commissions, the EU, NATO, UNESCO, etc.;
  • courses organized by training centers, NGOs, and the Unemployment Fund;
  • internal courses of enterprises, institutions, organizations;
  • etc.

We do not have enough data on the effectiveness and content of different kinds of learning to make any kind of assessment. It is known that the level of supplemental learning is (very) mixed. Usually the arrangement is as follows: the topic, place, time, duration, and number of participants are planned. The lecturer’s task is to cover the topic indicated in the program by the organizers.


The constitutional right to education applies not only to children and young people, but to the entire population!


The proportion of self-learning is constantly growing, since the availability of learning materials has increased dramatically thanks to the Internet. Unfortunately, they are all unrelated and often contradict each other. Because of this, learning does not always lead to improved qualification, orientation, and motivation. There are many opportunities, but little use!

There are also courses that are presented as an opportunity to improve qualifications. In the best case, qualification requirements will be formulated for you and an attempt will be made to achieve further correspondence of the knowledge and skills obtained in the courses with the qualification requirements.


Macro factors of the learning-upbringing process

FIGURE 9.1.8. Macro factors of the learning-upbringing process


If we look at supplemental learning not from the organizer’s perspective but from the perspective of practice, it is easy to see that what is needed is not learning, but preparedness, and not just satisfactory qualifications, but a competent idea of what is appropriate and everything else (see Figure 9.2.1.) that together forms a person’s preparedness to achieve the necessary results.



The older generation, and even the middle generation, went to a kind of public school dominated by a grades-oriented, reproductive, frontal learning process. This “style” has not been forgotten to this day. There are still teachers who want to drill, monitor, and give grades. Thus, a lot (really a lot) of precious time is lost.

It is difficult to say how widespread this arrangement still is, because we do not have the results of a relevant study. There are schools, kindergartens, and boarding schools (there are many different names for them) in Estonia that are remembered fondly, but there are also some that give me goosebumps when I think of them.

According to our interpretation, the main process in school is not studying, teaching, academic work, or the fulfillment of a state curriculum, but the development of the learner. Consequently, it would be reasonable to consider as acceptable in school only that which contributes to the development of boys and girls of different ages. In schools where family (parents’ and grandparents’) aspirations are supported, and where it is possible to combine intellectual, emotional, and spiritual aspirations into a single whole, students grow up to be suitable citizens. In such schools, learning is based not only on values, but first and foremost on virtues.


  • Academic laziness is dangerous to society.
  • The profane and dilettantes reproduce profane and dilettantes.
  • Specialists and generalists can only be formed and find a use for themselves next to specialists and generalists.


With luck, there is enough time, space, and attention in the learning process for activities of all kinds, not just teaching and studying.

But this is not the case everywhere. A great deal of extremely precious time is wasted in every Estonian school classroom. Schools are full of students who do things all day long, but don’t devote a single minute to studying.

We will not dwell on university student life here in detail. There are many university students who study mainly before tests and examinations, and then make every effort to quickly forget everything they have memorized and free up more space in their heads to cram for the next subject. And so it goes from year to year, until it is possible to collect the necessary number of grades. Departments are looking after lecturing of curriculum. A student as a person can attract the university management’s attention only by violating law and order.

Based on the Bologna Declaration, the bulk of university programs in Europe is in the “3+2” system. The undergraduate degree program was supposed to be preparation for graduate school. Unfortunately, everything went wrong, and the bachelor’s program is considered an independent study center, after which the “graduate” receives a diploma (!?). Every study level and school stage has its advantages and disadvantages, but if incomplete preparation dominates universities, the circumstances could become dangerous, and there is cause for concern.


Universities Act:

  • The tasks of the university include developing science and culture; providing society with the necessary services based on learning; scientific and creative activities; and forming students into responsible citizens capable of initiative.


Time permitting, those who wish could compare current academic requirements with those of, say, thirty years ago and determine what has changed for the better and what has gotten worse. In every university, in the scientific department of the Ministry of Education and Science, in the Estonian Agency for Quality in Higher and Vocational Education, in the parliamentary committee on culture, etc., there are probably people who understand the disadvantages of the current situation, but do not dare to speak out about it. Naturally, everyone has many justifications and explanations for what is happening, but they are not appropriate to justify a state of affairs that is approaching catastrophe. It is difficult to say whether citizens should conclude on the basis of such “explanations” that it is “none of their business” (or “it’s okay”), or whether to defend the position.

At the time independence was restored, universities were thought to be citadels of culture that we would never have to worry about. It seemed unbelievable that they could be guided by a culture of unjustified authority, stubbornness, malevolence, greed, and reckless thinking that cast aside both their native language and the basic obligation fixed by the Universities Act.


  • A specialty itself is not
  • employed! A person finds employment, and needs preparation in their specialty, profession, and occupation!
  • Learning that leaves generation after generation without the necessary preparation to make decisions and navigate metasystems is a crime against the state and the people.


In the opinion of many, the hastily implemented reform, as a result of which all so-called vocational and secondary special educational institutions were transferred to the Ministry of Education and Science, was a failure. Today they are beautifully renovated and equipped, but the content still leaves much to be desired. Of course, this picture varies, but if the results of a learning institution’s activities are liked only by those who established it, then we should not sigh, but take measures.



The task of “going through” all the topics in the curriculum does not require any extra effort from an experienced teacher, and that is why monotony is increasingly spreading in school. There are a lot of conversations on this topic, but monotony remains. Much of a teacher’s precious time is still spent checking assignments and giving grades, as well as reprimanding those who are distracted in various ways from their studies, disturbing students who are trying to behave properly, etc.

Children, like adults, who find themselves in a coercive situation of absurdity, try to escape, become angry, and are unable to master anything. Every year, the number of students who drop out of the learning process is equal to about an entire school, and they are mostly boys. There are many young people in Estonia who are said to be neither studying nor working, that is, sitting on their parents’ shoulders and “getting ready” to register as unemployed in order to get into some courses. Unfortunately, the level of learning organized for the unemployed is, to put it mildly, mixed. The same can be said of the learning process in the so-called vocational schools (see also 10 and 11).


  • In the material sphere, success can be achieved by reducing spending.
  • In the intangible sphere, success can be achieved by increasing spending!


In dealing with education issues, you cannot limit yourself solely to learning and its description. All those things on which education depends, and which in turn depend on education, must be dealt with (see Figure 0.3.2.). If the whole paradigm is wrong, then cosmetic measures will not seriously help.

If the principle of competency is not established in the society, then it is possible to have a high-level occupation or become an MP or councilor regardless of education. This is the root of evil. In this state of affairs, the educational system begins to be seen as dependent, and universities, instructors, teachers, their training, the production of textbooks, and everything else necessary to maintain an educated society are seen as a burden.


  • Folk wisdom says: „Cheat the field once — it will cheat you nine times.”
  • Entire generations have grown up in the field of education.


In the production of things, we try to achieve good results, in most cases, with minimal expenses. In intangible “production”, it would be wise to do the exact opposite! Economizing on the development of education, science, and culture can cost us dearly. The more resources that can be thoughtfully invested in the educational system, including teacher training, the more impressive the results will be.

This regards, of course, not only children and the school network. It applies to the educational system as a whole, and first of all to the organization and content of the continuous learning and creative process of adults. The lack of research on society and culture in universities (presumably due to underfunding) has already left a deep and increasingly widening gap in the entire educational system that is painful and difficult to compensate for. At some point we should realize that professors and lecturers cannot be formed in the absence of research — there will be no scholarly contacts, and there will be nowhere to get the relevant, systematic, and reliable information necessary for the learning process. As a result, it will become impossible to participate in creating innovative projects or advising practitioners.

People who have become “big bosses” in an undeserving way (through personal acquaintances, etc.) are often dismissive of intellectuals, education, and the educational system, as well as of science, the scientific system, culture, and the cultural system. This attitude may seem like a small thing at first glance, but in fact it poses a threat to society and to culture. Citizens should be vigilant to prevent something like this from happening.


A citizen who cares about their homeland does everything and more to prevent the triumph of drabness and indifference.


If learning is organized at a university in such a way that there is no discussion at all of forming an intellectual, a generalist, and a patriot, then the university also becomes part of a fraudulent scheme. If a university does not provide the opportunity for occupational training, social and cultural training, and training in matters of protecting the living environment, then at best only a qualified labor force will emerge from its walls. And we need intellectuals! We need creative people who are ready and able to devote themselves to the preservation and prosperity of their country and their people.


Education alone does not work; human beings act as individuals, and human communities act when they have attained the ability to navigate, make decisions, and cooperate as subjects.


In order to understand the prerequisites for the formation of an educated person and an educated society (as well as their preservation), it is necessary to consider the systems on which the formation of an educated, informed, and experienced person depends, as well as preserving the education they have gained: i.e., consistent, systematic self-improvement. You should know and apply those systems in which the meaning and significance of education are manifested.

Education is one of the prerequisites of intelligent activity. In addition to education, there are other factors that affect the feeling of happiness and life.

Education can play a significant role in society only in conjunction with science and culture, all of which are prerequisites for and simultaneously the results (and in the case of poor quality, the consequences) of one another.



Basic literacy is formed through general education, as well as the skill to navigate within oneself and the surrounding world, which in turn makes it possible to prepare for productive self-actualization and using every moment of life for self-improvement.

In middle and high school, studying history shapes the understanding of time; geography shapes the perception of space; literature shapes the understanding of culture; music and art history shape the understanding of art; physics, chemistry, and biology shape the understanding of nature; etc. Thanks to general education, a person can continue self-education, but is not yet ready to productively self-actualize. For self-actualization, it is necessary to become a professional: that is, to go through professional and occupational preparation, as well as specialties preparation — not just one of them, but all three, because together they give three-dimensional preparedness.


  • Thanks to general education, a person can continue self-education, but is not yet ready to productively self-actualize.
  • For self-actualization, it is necessary to become a professional.


Functional literacy is also necessary (see 2.7.), thanks to which a person can cope with daily life and procedures, will be able to create and protect their home and family, care for children and parents, communicate in their circle of friends and in the community, participate in social and cultural life, protect everything that is not be offensive, and replace what has outlived its usefulness.

For self-confidence, it is necessary to master at least two or three specialties, as well as two or three professions. Nevertheless, even such preparation is not sufficient. After all, self-actualization occurs in any occupation! A salary is paid based on an occupation, a promotion on the career ladder occurs relative to an occupation, and a dismissal is also from an occupation (not from the specialty!). If professional and specialty preparation is not accompanied by occupational preparation, it is impossible to self-actualize in a role where one must independently navigate, make and execute decisions, and be responsible for everything. Without preparation for an occupation, there is a chance of quickly becoming exhausted and burning out, no matter how good the specialty and professional preparation one has received.

In order to become a citizen, each person also needs the kind of preparation that facilitates orientation in society as an institutional system and in culture as a holographic system (where values depend on point of view). Otherwise, there is little hope for meaningful participation in social and cultural life. In theory, anyone can learn the basics of philosophy, psychology, social psychology, and sociology on their own, but in practice this rarely happens.


Each person needs preparation to protect themself and others, home and homeland, honor and dignity, freedom, independence, nature, culture, and all cultural values, including the cultural asset of greatest importance — the native language.


Each person needs preparation to protect themself and others, home and homeland, honor and dignity, freedom, independence, nature, culture, and all cultural values, including the cultural asset of greatest importance — the native language. Such preparation is real education, which, if taken seriously, will never be enough. The path of education has no end point; everyone is constantly moving on this path toward the ideal.

The more knowledge a person has, the better they understand what they still lack and what needs to be added.



It is necessary to have the skill to:

  • listen, so that you can understand the speaker, grasp the meaning of what is being said, and feel what the speaker wanted to say and what they were trying to avoid or hide;
  • remain silent and break the silence only when there is something to say;
  • speak in a way that others can understand you;
  • read (quickly, accurately, and with concentration);
  • write (clearly, concisely, and briefly);
  • think and reflect, anticipate and recognize;
  • perceive systems, metasystems, and supersystems;
  • try to consider everything as systematically and comprehensively as possible (see Figure 2.11.0);
  • find as many points of view as possible in each interpretation in order to consider everything as much as possible from all sides, both statically and dynamically;
  • dedicate yourself to your work, occupation, and profession in such a way that every week there is time and space for study, research, creativity, play, work, movement, communication, and solitude;
  • respect academic values and norms;
  • strive, despite obstacles, to know the truth, knowing that there is no end to the path;
  • feel the joy of moving along endless paths;
  • take care of your health and the health of others;
  • appreciate silence and light in every sense of those words;
  • be the subject (rather than appearing to be the subject, and not to be mistaken for the object of manipulation!);
  • communicate with other people (rather than treating others);
  • dedicate yourself to becoming a professional and remaining a professional;
  • avoid occupations and roles in which you are not yet ready to navigate, decide independently, and take responsibility;
  • know and cherish languages, first and foremost the native language;
  • protect nature and natural resources;
  • protect culture and cultural heritage;
  • preserve and protect your rights and the rights of others to take initiative and be autonomous, free, and independent;
  • be a decent, punctual, honest, reliable, and trustworthy partner for cooperation;
  • take into account that only a person who is sufficiently generous and open to all good people can become richer.



It is impossible to make a single list that suits absolutely everyone, but it is still possible to reflect on yourself. Despite our differences and peculiarities, we all have equivalent and comparable qualities and traits in common. Below are some concepts worthy of closer consideration that have meaning in the context of self-knowledge.

Adequacy. An adequate person does not think of themself as a superhuman, but also does not perceive themself as an empty vessel on which nothing depends.

Duration of the individual minute. The shorter an individual minute (see 2.0.) is, the more significant events it contains. The faster time ticks along and the longer life becomes, the shorter the individual minute. There is no correlation between life expectancy and the number of years lived.

Ability to reflect. Children who begin to name objects, people, and actions are at the first level of the ability to reflect. Children who are beginning to use pronouns are at the second level. Decide for yourself at what level of reflection is a person who says the following: “I think you know what I think of you.” University students must have the ability to communicate at the sixth-seventh level of reflection.

Ability to think. The ability to effortlessly identify and differentiate, distinguish and relate, systematize and classify, analyze and generalize, model and extrapolate.

Ability to express yourself. The ability to communicate your thoughts succinctly and clearly in oral and written form, and only when you have something to say.

Politeness. A sincere desire to behave in accordance with the good customs and rituals set in the culture.

Preparedness for battle. Intolerance to all manifestations of meanness, lies, deception, greed, indifference, etc., which pose a danger to the country, the people, nature, culture, and human dignity. Preparedness to stand up for everything that is reasonable, right, and just, expressed through spiritual clarity, moderation, and caring.

Self-analysis can also be performed with the help of a table (see Figure 0.3.1.).

We have repeatedly said that in order to see any object, phenomenon, or process, one must find quite a few points of view (see Figure 0.3.1.). There can be many different but true (or false!) images for each object. A picture seen from only one point of view may be right or wrong, but such a view certainly cannot be considered sufficient.

Every concept should be operationally defined from every point of view. To do this, it is necessary to prepare as complete a list as possible of factors and influences that contribute to an understanding of how the concept was formed and on what it depends. Naturally, the concept itself should also be defined.



The doctrine of culture is the doctrine of a system of unwritten rules, wisdom passed down from generation to generation, containing values and norms, myths and taboos, virtues, customs, rituals, traditions. Through the doctrine of culture, people come to self-knowledge and self-respect. They learn how the holographic system works, the expression and representative of which can be every person who grew up in this culture and carries this culture in themself (see 5.).


Understanding and comprehension:

  • One can understand causes and effects; connections and dependencies; systems and their functioning, change, development, etc.
  • One subject can comprehend another subject.


The doctrine of society is the doctrine of a system of written rules. Through the doctrine of society, it is possible to learn how the specific institutional system, where a person lives in and knows about, functions and changes (see 4.).

The doctrine of the family is the doctrine of the primary environment of upbringing. It is in the family that gender identity and a sense of belonging can be formed, which later develop into the foundations of loyalty and fidelity. According to the Constitution, the family, as the basis for the preservation and multiplication of the nation and as the foundation of society, is protected by the state. The family is part of society and culture.

The doctrine of community — the community has a broader sphere of influence in the process of forming a person. A person belongs to several communities at the same time, for example, school, church, village, sports, national (diaspora).

The doctrine of the environment — everything happens in the environment as in the system. The environment can be tangible, intangible, and virtual (see 3.).

The doctrine of communication — people are connected to one another through various connections. These are, for example, family and community, departmental, party, regional, formal (occupational), informal, public and hidden, obligatory, or voluntary connections. Within communication there is a distinction between discussion and interaction. Within treatment there is a distinction between informing and physical influence (see 6.).


Study result

FIGURE 9.2.1. Study result


The doctrine of health — everyone should know about and take care of their health and the health of other people, as well as health factors. Activities at the expense of health are unacceptable! (See 2.4.)

The doctrine of the human — here it is necessary to consider both physical, spiritual, social, emotional, and intellectual development, as well as a picture of the world and moral attitudes, virtues, the will, lofty ideas, ideals, all kinds of alternatives, the basis of a humanistic worldview, etc.



We tend to talk a lot about learning, but we rarely talk about competency. No one in Estonia has yet had the strength to establish the principle of competency in the state. Conversations about competency usually begin only when someone’s incompetence is revealed and a mess is created in some area.

We begin the conversation about competency not to assess someone, but to encourage readers to self-reflect and clarify their knowledge (and the knowledge of those around them) in the area of civic upbringing. In every sphere of life, a sufficiently high qualification is necessary for modern and productive activity. However, qualification only matters if there is also the right orientation and strong motivation. A closer examination reveals that the value is not the one, the other, or the third separately, but their unity. In other words, if one of the three components is weak or missing altogether, then the others no longer matter. Consequently, it would be ridiculous to focus only on increasing qualification.


  • Each area requires a fairly high qualification.
  • Qualifications only matter if you have the right orientation and strong motivation.


In addition to these three components, the citizen must also be sufficiently erudite to understand the connections between the levels of regulation; the connections between the spheres of activity; the connections between the past, the present, and the future; and the natural, human, and social connections; etc.

A person also needs affiliation — cordiality, kindness, human care, humanity.

Practice shows that there is another factor, the importance of which everyone understands, but the content and formation of which no one has been able (until now) to describe well — this is intuition. Big decisions are made by the individual, as a rule, based on intuition and not through rational thinking, modeling, extrapolation, classification, and systematization.


A unity of preparation is necessary for effective activity: in the specialty, in the profession, and in the occupation:

  • qualification — the unity of knowledge, skills, and experience;
  • orientation — understanding the right and wrong direction, moral and immoral ways of thinking, feeling, etc;
  • motivation — a set of motives;
  • erudition — a broad out-look, education, the skill to grasp the context;
  • affiliation — cordiality, kindness, human care, humanity;
  • intuition — subconscious perception, trustworthy sensitivity.


A diploma or certificate of completion is not an indicator of qualification, nor an indicator of preparedness. If you want to have any particular occupation, or become an MP or a councilor, neither the number of years spent in an educational institution nor the number of diplomas is what matters, but preparedness for the activity that one intends to engage in. Thus, one should not start from prior learning, but from the activity to come.

A decision on eligibility can be made based on whether or not one has developed the preparedness to act responsibly as an MP, a councilor, or in any elected position. At the time of applying for a competition or an election, it is too late to start thinking about the nature of preparation. It can take years to achieve the necessary preparation. But everyone should have enough intelligence to analyze to what extent the existing preparation meets the requirements.


Citizen Competency Analysis Table

FIGURE 9.3.1. Citizen Competency Analysis Table
In each box of the table, you should put a rating of your own preparedness and success in this area. Then add up the vertical and horizontal scores. This way you can find out what is already in order and what needs more attention.


We are talking about both professional and moral issues here.

In Estonia, as in all other states, there is only one force capable of calling party management to reasonable decisions. This force is the bearer of supreme power — the people. Citizens can show through elections who cares about their homeland and how.

A democratic state based on the rule of law hinges on its citizens, but you do not become a citizen just like that, randomly passing by. To do this, you have to make an effort and not stop self-education. Do not be afraid that someone will turn out to be an overly good citizen. On the contrary, it is good to have someone strong in one thing and someone else strong in another; such diversity is valuable in a joint activity.

It is important that people understand each other and strive for perfection and not be surprised or ironic about such aspirations. A citizen takes care of their homeland, devotes themself to it, and will not recklessly commit acts that may harm their country.

It is not a question of each person becoming a professional in all areas, but of having a holistic view of everything, seeing their role as part of the whole, and understanding the role of different areas in large systems.

The value is the preparedness to think and act systematically.

The following is a brief list of components from which preparedness should be formed. This list cannot be complete, and each person will have their own characteristics. Any person is able to decide for themself what is in order and what is not quite right, which components are missing, and which are more redundant than necessary. The reader will be able to analyze themself and, if desired, make their own program of further self-education. Preparedness must be achieved:

  • To live — so that there is no regret for the days and years lived, so that life is reasonable and brings joy; so that a person can be happy and create conditions for those around to have a happy life.
  • To create — creativity is a condition for the development of a person and society. NB! A subject´s development is the function of creativity, not studying.

To cognize — learning to understand and feel for yourself and others in order to know the environment (natural, artificial, physical, spiritual, social, and virtual environments, see 3.0.). Cognition is necessary for goal visualization and feedback in processes and decisions, to be able to collect reliable data, and to turn it into usable information.

  • To manage — to consciously direct various processes and create the prerequisites necessary for self-regulation. Preparedness to manage can be considered satisfactory if there is preparation in executing.
  • To execute — to carry out management’s decisions. There is no point in decisionsif no one is able to, willing to, capable of, or even thinking about carrying them out. Preparation in executing (see 10.) is just as important as preparation in management (see 11.).
  • To struggle — life is a battle. The main battle takes place within the person themself! Those who care are struggling. The victorious are those who are diligent, consistent, punctual, reasonably balanced, demanding of themselves and others; and at the same time considerate, honest, cordial, and fair. The battle is not only against a possible external enemy and with weapons in hand, although if necessary, this is also important. Everyone should fight to preserve nature and all cultural values. Fight for truth and justice. It is necessary to fight for the right to be free and independent. We must fight for the right to enjoy our constitutional rights, to create something new, and to take care of that which must not be changed.
  • To protect — it is necessary to protect yourself, your loved ones, home and homeland, freedom, independence, human rights, civil rights, nature, culture, native language, the weak, etc. Preparedness to protect is as important as preparedness to battle. You should protect yourself and others from scoundrels, rude people, liars, manipulators and other immoral “life artists”.
  • To play — playing is a fundamental activity through which people learn to feel about themselves and others, to learn about the environment and the activity system. With the help of playing you can see who is who, understand the extent to which a person is concentrated and dedicated, is trustworthy, honest or immoral. If a person, for example, plays as if they were playing, then where is the guarantee that they will not also play in another activity. The more politics and everything related to real life become a game in society, the more important and serious theater and sports suddenly become — that is, activities originally conceived as games.

Naturally, preparation is also necessary to earn one’s own bread. A person can productively realize themself if they have preparation both in their specialty and in their profession and occupation. Not one, two, or three separately, but all three together! It should not be forgotten, however, that it is, of course, the personality, not the preparation, that thinks, feels, and acts.



Creative unions and societies would do well to find out what the preparation of people in this field should really be in order to be productive, intensive, and effective.

It so happened that education (poor education) is a significant cause of the delayed development of Estonia (and not only Estonia!). NB! Now, we are not talking about what is happening in kindergartens, basic schools, and gymnasiums.

Our trouble is that many basic concepts and the connections between them are not clearly defined. For this reason, it is impossible to understand what exactly is being talked about, and no one can react as a citizen when somewhere they are saying the exact opposite of what is actually happening. It is announced to the public that the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) has measured the quality of education, and according to the measurement results, we can conclude that Estonian education is among the best in the world. However, this is an exaggeration. Nevertheless, there are those among education officials who hope that on the basis of such announcements everyone should come to believe that everything in “education” is flawless. Everyone knows that if there is no cause for concern, it is safe to continue in the same spirit.


Weak education is a significant reason for the delayed development of Estonia (and not only Estonia!).


NB! In society, everything can only be at peace in relation to other similar phenomena, states, or processes! Those who imagine that what has been achieved is an ideal that can only be admired by all together unwittingly creates a situation where, instead of striving forward, the syndrome of preserving the current state of affairs prevails. In this case, the consequences of lagging behind others (stagnation and degradation) are only a matter of time. Society needs constant improvement of all systems (see Figure 4.0.3.), and first of all, improvement of the education system, which should always be ahead of its time.



The talk surrounding the PISA tests contains several gross errors. Let us note two important points in this regard:

  • The test cannot measure anything. A test is a method. With a test, data can be collected from which experts in the relevant field can give their assessment.
  • The PISA test collected data on some of the skills of ninth-grade students. No conclusions can be drawn from these data about education or the developmental level of students, nor about the level of the school, the teaching or studying system, the learning, or the upbringing.

Much has already been said about integrating residents of different nationalities. Many believe that the primary factor in integration is language. There is a notion that by learning a language, people integrate and adapt (see 2.2.).

Language cannot communicate. Communication can take place between people (if they want to), or more precisely, between individuals as subjects of social management themselves. It is not language that becomes the value, but the unity of language and mindset toward language, country, and culture. The value becomes the person who increasingly understands cultural and social connections, who feels and thinks a little differently; who believes and hopes they have done right. At first, newcomers do not dream of loving their new homeland. It’s good if resentment and hatred can be kept at bay.


  • The value is not language, but the unity of language and mindset toward language, country, and culture.
  • The value is a person who understands cultural and social connections well, who feels and thinks a little differently; who believes and hopes they have done the right thing.


It is worth repeating what was said at the beginning of this chapter: education cannot be Estonian-language, Russian-language, English-language, etc., but the educational process can take place in a language that students and teachers know sufficiently. Whether one becomes educated is not a question of language at all.

It is impossible to work in education — people work in a school or in another educational institution. Education can not be finished — you can graduate from a school. People do not study in a curriculum, but in a university where the learning process is based on a curriculum of some kind. Education cannot be given — you can give a certificate or diploma of successful completion of the school curriculum, adding to it a warm handshake and a bouquet of flowers. Education cannot be funded — learning institutions can be funded, as well as learning, creative, and research programs. Education, like health, is always singular (there cannot be more than one!). A person can go to more than one learning institution and also receive more than one diploma or certificate of completion.

There is no correlation between the number of years spent in school and education.



It should be clear from the above that expressions like “school education,” “interest education,” “vocational education,” etc. have no meaning.

No one is able to guess who mastered what at school, at home, or anywhere else. It is possible to find out what was studied in various disciplines in school, but it is impossible to guess how (thanks to whom or what) someone managed to become a personality-subject or remain an object of manipulation.

As for interest, it is a significant prerequisite for various activities that have an aim and a goal. But in order to become an educated person, interest alone is not enough; the unity of interest, desire, and will is needed (see Figure 2.12.2.).

It would be ridiculous to distinguish, for example, between health and hospital health. It also makes no sense in all seriousness to separate school education from education. If we continue talking about interest education, it may happen that someone will start a conversation about emotional education, or thought education. I would like to believe that educated people will not make such logical errors.

Let us repeat: when discussing education, we must realize once and for all that it is not just about schools, kindergartens, and the children who attend them! All institutions have an educational purpose, and the entire population participates (must participate!) in the lifelong learning process!



For further reflection, below is a selection of golden rules for creating and maintaining an upbringing environment:

  • Do not tell others what they should and could have figured out for themselves!
  • Don’t decide what others could and should have decided for themselves; rather, help with guiding questions and advice!
  • Don’t do for others what they should and could do for themselves!
  • Don’t assume that talking alone is enough! Give people the opportunity to act and to see for themselves that the ideas expressed were correct and that the speaker is smart enough, honest, and benevolent.
  • A sense of responsibility and activity do not emerge on their own; they emerge when a person is given the opportunity to truly (not pretend) participate in making decisions.
  • Keep in mind that the upbringing effects are formed only in a real situation; in a game situation, all the comments and praise do not leave a special trace.
  • The mechanism for the development of a subject (individuals, groups, etc.) is creativity. The prerequisite for creativity is freedom and independence, and the condition for exercising freedom is order and respect for order. Not only will nothing good come out of creativity in disarray, but creative people can simply die in disarray.
  • The main national wealth is the gift (polished gift is the talent). Unfortunately, it often happens that if the Creator was very generous to someone in a particular way, he could also be very stingy with something else.
  • The most significant prerequisites for learning and upbringing are trust, respect, responsiveness, love, etc., and these cannot be created or replaced.
  • Every child and most adults are special and unique! Everyone has the right to grow up to be admirable, and no one has the right to level (equalize) or harm others in this way.

The sphere of education is at the center of the golden rules, but in principle, these rules are valid for any sphere of life.



It’s worth looking inside yourself to see if the preparation you need to be a citizen is already satisfactory.

One should consider whether something (and what exactly?) is threatening:

  • our native language;
  • the vitality of our people;
  • our universities;
  • our national elite;
  • our state and cultural independence;
  • the personal freedom of each of our citizens;
  • our national and state dignity;
  • our communication space (citizens’ opportunity to be informed);
  • our freedom of speech (the right of citizens to think and express their thoughts and feelings in a way that the public can understand);
  • our education space (citizens’ opportunity to become and remain educated people);
  • our economic space;
  • our cultural space;
  • the formation of our culture of authority (through elections, appointments);
  • our creative potential;
  • our talents;
  • our spirituality;
  • our system of virtues;
  • our health;
  • our health care system; our nature;
  • our state.

Using this enumeration, it is worth considering what measures are necessary to preserve, protect, and improve all of the above.

NB! Measures can be direct and indirect, public and hidden, local and global, systemic, fragmented, etc. The impact of these measures is important. It is necessary to find effective protection against hazards, as well as the strength to create and apply new success factors.


Table for analyzing the results and consequences of decisions

FIGURE 9.5.1. Table for analyzing the results and consequences of decisions